Water Quality Index Score: 66, Fair
To no surprise, our 2015 data showed that:
- Nitrate continues to be consistently high in upper Escondido Creek. Every single sample collected from our three upper Escondido Creek sites was above the basin plan standard.
- Fecal indicator bacteria counts were also high.
In fact, the ten samples with the highest nitrate concentrations collected anywhere in San Diego County in 2015 came from Escondido Creek. Because of this, our volunteers report seeing a lot of algae growth in the water.
We’re not surprised because nitrate always measures high in Escondido Creek, but we’re interested in learning why this consistently happens. Recently, we inquired with the City of Escondido, and representatives say it comes from groundwater and the legacy pollution from the agriculture industry. Thankfully, our longtime volunteer and board member, Taya Lazootin, is running a research project to examine nitrate in Escondido Creek to figure out what’s happening. We’ve also implemented stormwater monitoring in the upper Escondido Creek sites to investigate the pollution issues here.
Fun fact: Our volunteers in Carlsbad are some of our longest serving volunteers. Many of them have been water quality monitors for over 5 years.
Water Quality Index Score: 80, Fair
Of the nine watersheds we measure in our water quality monitoring program, San Luis Rey had the best water quality index score in 2015. But at 79.9 (roughly a B- or C+) it’s not exactly a stellar grade.
We tracked two parameters of concern in San Luis Rey Watershed:
- Turbidity: Two-thirds of the turbidity samples exceeded healthy standards
- Levels of pH: Over half of the pH samples collected exceeded healthy standards
Turbidity and Tidal Wetlands
Turbidity refers to the cloudiness or haziness of water caused by many small particles generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. Small particles, such as sediment or organic material, in the water make it appear cloudy. When turbidity is high, it’s harder for light to reach the ground, affecting the growth of plants. As well, pollutants like metals and bacteria can hitch a ride down our watersheds in the spaces between these particles.
We especially care about turbidity in the San Luis River because it contains a tidal wetland, a habitat where fresh water meets coastal salt water. Tidal wetlands are vital habitats for species like mullet fish and birds that depend upon a consistent balance of fresh and salt water. If unnatural amounts of sediments build up in this area, they can block salt water from entering the area and disrupt the balance of this critical habitat.
Water Quality Index Score: 62, Marginal
The San Diego River had another bad year.
Key data takeaways include:
- Commonly high levels of phosphorus and ammonia
- Dissolved oxygen at the Fashion Valley site continued to be very low – even in the winter when it is usually higher
- Repeated reports from our volunteers noting excessive amounts of algae and duckweed
- Volunteers repeatedly reported lots of trash
Four Symptoms of One Phenomenon: Urban Runoff
All four of these bullet points are related, indicating a chain reaction likely triggered by urban runoff. Rain washes pollutants from our urban areas down our storm drains and into our watersheds. These pollutants include trash, like that reported by volunteers as well as fertilizers we use for our lawns and landscaping. These fertilizers contribute to high levels of phosphorous and ammonia which supercharge plant growth. In the San Diego River’s case, this meant large blooms of algae and duckweed. This growth blocks sunlight from reaching plants beneath the water, causing them to die and begin to rot all at once. The rotting produces an unnatural surge of bacteria that use up the dissolved oxygen that aquatic wildlife depend on to breathe. This phenomenon was so prevalent in the San Diego River that for two consecutive months, we measured dissolved oxygen at deadly low levels (called anoxic, <0.5 mg/L).
The San Diego River is also an example of how lower water levels caused by the drought affect our water quality. We estimate that the San Diego River’s low water levels in 2015, contributed to slower water flow and warmer temperatures. This likely exacerbated the river’s problems by creating a better breeding ground for explosive algae growth.
Water Quality Index Score: 14, Poor
Since we can only sample the Tijuana watershed when water levels are high after a recent rain, we were only able to sample the watershed three times this year.
The Tijuana-based sewage treatment plant handles and purifies 50 million gallons of river water every day, but it can’t handle wet weather flows. When it rains, the operators divert the river flow without treatment, and that’s when we can sample the river. This is also why Imperial Beach beaches are frequently closed during the winter.
Our only sample in 2015 followed a massive rain event in December. That sample showed:
- Bacteria levels were extremely high – even diluting the sample 100 fold, the concentrations were still higher than our test kits can measure
- Ammonia and phosphorus levels were off the charts
- Volunteers find the water looking murky and comment on its extreme odor
This watershed requires a lot of cross-border collaboration to truly understand and solve the interconnected water quality issues. We’re looking for passionate volunteers to get trained in water quality monitoring so they can champion efforts in this challenging watershed. What are you waiting for? Sign up to get trained!
Water Quality Index Score: 57, Marginal
Over the course of 2015, the Otay Watershed remained the most consistent watershed in the county. Unfortunately, the water quality was consistently bad.
- Consistently high bacteria levels: Every sample collected exceeded healthy standards for Enterococcus.
- Consistently high Nitrate levels: Almost every sample exceeded standards
- Consistently low dissolved oxygen concentrations
In better news, we loved hearing that Water Quality Monitors in this watershed also consistently spotted dragonflies, crawfish and herons while sampling.
Stormwater Detective Work
To further investigate these troubling water quality problems, we launched a stormwater sampling program in 2015 to supplement our regular testing of the Otay watershed. Our stormwater sampling program enlists a special team of volunteer Water Quality Monitors to drop what they’re doing as soon as a storm hits to collect stormwater samples at specific sites of interest.
During storms, as the rainwater runs off our lawns, driveways and streets, it carries pollutants like metals, bacteria and sediment into our rivers, lagoons and ocean. With our stormwater monitoring program, we hope to better understand where and how much pollution is entering our waterways during rainstorms. This information can then be used in efforts to clean stormwater before it has a chance to harm our watersheds.
Water Quality Index Score: 56, Marginal
A few key takeaways from our Pueblo Watershed data:
- Chollas River sites often had very high phosphorus and ammonia
- Ph and nitrate levels were the only water quality indicators that were not of concern
- Volunteers found and removed lots of trash from our sampling sites in this watershed
As this watershed is home to Chollas Creek, one of San Diego’s most urban rivers, these results aren’t unexpected. The high phosphorous and ammonia levels in this watershed are a common result of urban runoff, when rain washes pollutants, like lawn fertilizers and pesticides, down our storm drains and into our rivers and streams.
This creek is also infamous for drying up, so our dataset is missing many samples throughout the year. In fact, more sites went dry this year than any other year in Coastkeeper’s recent sampling history here. All signs point toward poorer water quality than shown with the samples that we could collect. With more flow and more samples, this watershed probably would have earned a Poor Water Quality Index Score.
Water Quality Index Score: 76, Fair
Our data in San Dieguito Watershed show:
Ammonia and Phosphorous
These are nutrients people add to farms, lawns and gardens to encourage robust and healthy plant growth. In our water, however, extra nutrients are harmful pollution. When rain washes these nutrients down storm drains and into our watersheds, it triggers an unhealthy chain reaction called eutrophication. Nutrient pollution can fuel massive, unnatural blooms of algae on the water’s surface that grow so big they block the sun from reaching plants below the water. When these plants die from lack of sunlight all at once, they begin to rot all at once too, producing an unnatural amount of bacteria that use up the dissolved oxygen that other wildlife depend on to breath. This puts stress on or kills our underwater wildlife.
Nutrient pollution is a huge concern for this waterway because our volunteers spotted lots of wildlife including blue herons, hummingbirds, ducks, bull frogs, carp, bass, crayfish, turtles, clams, crawfish and many insects.
Volunteers noted this watershed was filled with trash including fishing gear, golf balls, old tarps, knitting needles, clothing, irrigation piping, and beer bottles.
Water Quality Index Score: 53, Marginal
Our data in Sweetwater Watershed showed:
This is another watershed indicative of extremely low water flows creating high nutrient levels and low oxygen levels — so low that the river is nearly depleted of oxygen for many of the summer months.
Why should we care? Our volunteers also spot turtles in this watershed, which depend on the river for their livelihood.
Water Quality Index Score: 74, Fair
Well, here it is: the most typical, average watershed in San Diego County in terms of water quality pollution and health. Our data in this watershed did not change dramatically from the year previous, nor did it produce any intriguing results this year.
The end point for this watershed, the Los Penasquitos Lagoon, has an official “pollution diet” in place for sediment, which means it’s a known problem here. We continue to monitor this closely.
From time to time I’m asked to speak at one event or another on issues related to water quality or water supply and I almost always seize those opportunities to educate and inform on Coastkeeper’s positions and ongoing work. Recently Coastkeeper agreed to co-sponsor a workshop on the statewide industrial stormwater permit and compliance. And, after seeing how crucial this month’s Industrial General Permit Awareness Training was for industry leaders failing to comply with pollution regulations, consider this blog post a standing offer to dust off my slide presentation for any other leaders who will listen.
On February 2, I joined experts from The Industrial Environmental Association and the State and Regional Water Boards to educate industry leaders on how to meet the requirements of the statewide industrial stormwater permit and do their part to keep our waters healthy. The day’s workshop demonstrated the profound need for further efforts to inform industries about the legal requirements that aim to protect our waters.
For instance, most small- and medium-sized businesses covered by the industrial stormwater general permit don’t know enough about the permit’s water protection mandates. In fact, California State University at San Marcos conducted a survey that found that 100 percent of small businesses (sized 0-25 employees) were “not adequately informed” about the permit. Unfortunately, these small businesses have an incredibly significant impact on the quality and health of our waters.
Furthermore, the State Water Board explained that less than half of all facilities that have filed for coverage under the permit are complying with its monitoring and reporting requirements. As many as half of all facilities that discharge metals into our waters are likely to be required to undergo a more rigorous compliance process since their discharges are of such poor quality. This news comes after years of noncompliance and continued polluting by many different industrial sectors throughout San Diego County.
While the day did not bring good news, it was important to learn how truly necessary these workshops and trainings are in order to educate industry leaders and consultants about the role they must play in keeping pollution out of our water. We were grateful to partner with Biocom and The Industrial Environmental Association to make February’s event possible and look to the future with renewed motivation to continue our work protecting and restoring San Diego’s water.